تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
التخصص: English Language
نوع الدراسة: انتساب
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بخصوص المقدمه الملف هذا مفيد
• The dramatic method of Presenting a fictional experience is to let the characters speak for themselves and perform their various actions before our eyes.
• Dramas are written to be performed and it may be argued that the appreciation of a play gained from reading it is not quit the same thing as that gained from seeing it on the stage.
• Good direction and excellent acting can indeed make the play richer for us but if we have imagination.
_- What is the difference between Drama and Fiction?
The dramatic method of presenting of fictional experience is to let the
characters speak for themselves and perform their various actions before our
The action and words present a picture of the characters and situations.
In contrast fiction writers do not leave the characters to speak for themselves,
but they describe their feelings, their places , and how they look like.
- What is the problem of the artist?
The grat problem of the artiest , of course remains the same in drama as in the
poetry, and fiction, the problem of creating for the reader an experience with
intensity and meaning.
_- What are the problems common to both drama and fiction?
_. the problem of building up characters in whom we can belief.
B- the problem of choosing a beginning point.
C. the problem of exposition, the problem of telling the audience who characters are, and what the original situation is .
D. the problem of movement, that of deciding how the various stages of theaction are to be presented to the reader.
. the problem of complicating the action.
F. The general problem of making the play expresses the theme that the author wishes to present of his audience.
- What are the limitations the dramatist is not allowed to do?
_-direct penetration into the character's mind.
• The most obvious effect of the dramatic form involves immediacy and intensity ( both of them spring from the essential nature of drama).
• It is true that the basis of drama and fiction is conflict but, if all fiction requires conflict, in drama the requirement is paramount.
• Melodrama corresponds in drama to the crude action story in fiction.
• In tragedy, the struggle may be as violent as that of melodrama.
• Modes other than melodrama and tragedy may involve less violent conflict, but the dramatic effect (even in light comedy) derives ultimately from conflict.
• The quality of conflict is to be found in some degree in all forms of literature, (dramatic situation-dramatic story-or even dramatic lyric).
الجزئيه القادمه هذه جاء عليها سؤال العام وهو ما الشبه والاختلاف بين الكوميديا والتراجيديا ؟
بالنسبه للشبه فهو اول ثلاث نقاط .
Tragedy and comedy
• The two great traditional classifications of drama are tragedy and comedy.
• We almost never find them in pure state, but in ( mixtures of tragedy and comedy)
• Tragedy and comedy though at so many points antithetical, may involve actions that fundamentally very much a like, so the same general circumstance may be interpreted as comedy or as tragedy.
• How might one go about changing tragedy to comedy?
By two principles:
1. making the audience less sympathetic
2. changing the consequences to less serious
• in this case we just changed our treatment, but the essential situation not change.
• Here we can say, “It is not the bare situation that makes a play tragic or comic, but it is largely the interpretation and treatment of the situation by the dramatist himself”.
• In drama, the characters are not static but dynamic; they are not merely acted on, as we said before, the essential of drama is struggle and conflict.
Tragic and pathetic
• The difference between the pathetic and the tragic is ( in the pathetic there is no emphasis on struggle, which means the protagonist suffer almost passively. But in tragic, there is a definite emphasis on the struggle, which means the protagonist fights back, and fights so effectively ).
• True tragedy can never be merely a matter of pity.
1. the tragic character must not be spineless
2. the protagonist must not be set against overpowering odds. ( Bonamy Dobree defines tragedy as the trail of a man’s individual strength ).
3. The fate of the protagonist must flow from his character
4. The dramatist cannot afford to rest in mere character analysis.
اول نقطتين قادمتين هي من نقاط الاختلاف بين الكوميديا والتراجيديا ويتبقى نقاط أخرى موجوده في المذكره ولكنها تحتاج الى قرأه بتركيز .
• In tragedy we stand side by side with the protagonist
• In comedy we stand in our sympathies with society itself, the laws or customs, and that is why we can describe the function of comedy as that of a social corrective.
• The definitions and schemes are tools to help the readers and only tools help readers to understand and explore the literature.
اولاً لا بد من معرفة الشخصيات الرئيسيه فيها لسببين :
1- ربط الاحداث
2- فيه اكيد سؤال يطلب منك التحدث عن الشخصيات او احدها .
The principal characters:
1) Lady Teazle :
She is a young, vivacious girl from the country, married to Sir Peter Teazle shortly before the play opens, her life in the country seems to have been uneventful and very simple, in London Lady Teazle’s life becomes dominated by fashion, she enters Lady Sneerwell’s circle, an unfounded rumors spread by Mrs. candour that Lady Teazle is in love with Charles Surface, however she stays faithful to her husband, this is revealed when her husband discovers her hiding behind the screen in Joseph’s house, she confesses to her husband that she has been seduced by Josephs in serious arguments her repentance and charm eventually disperse Sir Peter’s suspicions, her character is fuse in two dramatic conventions. The young wife who marries an elderly husband and that of the country woman who is trans ported to the town .
2) Sir Peter Teazle:
Sir Peter Teazle is a 56- year- old husband of Lady Teazle, he is pompous, opinionated, tetchy but never the less his uprightness of character helps him to pass unscathed through the situation of the play, him first words to the audience stress the dramatic conventionality of the situation he finds him self in when an old bachelor marries a young life what is he to expect? > he is not satisfied with his wife’s extravagance in buying flowers. In spite of his wife’s provocations, Sir Peter is always a realist and possesses an underlying stability. When we consider Sir Peter’s dealings with the Surface family and with Lady Sneerwell’s circle. Sir Oliver Surface has been a long. Standing friend of Sir Pete’s and on going a broad to live he made Sir Peter the guardian of his two nephews, Charles and Joseph. This, together with his guardianship of Maria, is another mark of the trustworthiness of the man. Sir Peter is opinionated, he polarizes his attitude towards the brothers Charles is a profligate and Joseph a model of virtue until the end of act 4 no action of either brother will make him less flexible. When the screen falls and the truth is out, his remonstration to Joseph is contained in a single sentence. Joseph is a villain who is to bereft to his own conscience Sir Peter views Lady Sneerwell and her friends with horror. He spends little time in this company although his wife frequents it . In his relationships with his wife, the Surface family and the slanderers Sir Peter is used as a link character, drawing the various stands of the comedy to gather.
3) Joseph Surface:
Joseph the mean and rapacious. Joseph the seducer and the man of sentiment. Joseph’s meanness is illustrated in his encounter with his uncle, Sir Oliver Surface, in the guise of Mr.stanely, Joseph is shown to be mean hypocrite and liar. His uncle discovers his reality in comparison with his brother Charles Surface. His apparent love for Lady Sneerwell is recognized a scabland. Once Lady Teazle is in the library Joseph attempts to apply sophistry in order to seduce her. When Lady Teazle is discovered by her husband hiding in the library, Joseph’s lock of gallantry reveals the true man, a lame excuse for his conduct is followed by an assertion that Lady Teazle is mad. He is sure that his downfall is due not to himself but to fate.
4) Charles Surface :
Charles is a good face and figure, easy manners evident good nature, animation and sensibility the two brothers are a contrast, as Joseph Surface is with drawl hypocrite, so charles is the good- natured man . Charles and Maria, Sir Peter Teazle’s ward are in love Sir Oliver Surface, Charlie’s uncle cognize his true good nature when he visits him in the disguise of Mr. premium. It seems that most of other characters look down Charles in favors of his brother Joseph but it comes out clear at the end of the play that Charles is a good- natured man, Sir Peter realizes his goodness when he sees Lady Teazle hiding behind the screen in Joseph’s library and he agrees to marry Charles to Maria.
5) Sir Oliver Surface:
Sir Oliver Surface is the uncle of Joseph Surface and Charles Surface, he is the absent relative and the disguised watcher Sir Oliver Surface wanted to know his nephews reality so he visited each of them in the disguise of Mr. premium and Mr. Stanley. In the winding up of the plot Sir Oliver is seen both as a juclge, in his condemnation of Joseph and as benign and paternalistic in arranging the marriage of Maria and Charles.
6) Maria :
The role of Maria is an insignificant one she is the prize for whom Charles and Joseph Surface compete, but in her own right she is neither a strongly drawn, nor a lively character, she lacks the way ward ness. We see in her an example of dutiful worthiness Maria is a girl of integrity although surrounded by the circle of gossips, she refuses to join their slanderous detractions.
7) Lady Sneerwell:
Most of the gossips remain detached from the plot of this comedy. Lady Sneerwell is the exception Lady Sneerwell and snake in forms the audience that Joseph is a hypocrite, Lady Sneerwell is determined to break the affection of Charles for Maria, because she is herself is in love with Charles. Lady Sneerwell is aptly called the president of the scandalous college by Lady Teazle. Lady Sneerwell justifies for her slanderous talk. Early in he rife she was wounded by its envenomed tongue at the end of the play Lady Sneerwell is most undignified. She is betrayed by snake the town knows of her love for Charles and of the forged letters allegedly from Charles to Lady Teazle, her character is summarized as a fury and a malicious creature .
8) Mrs.candour :
She constantly claims that she is benignly defending her friends, and yet she belies the claim by repeating all manner of gossip al though Mrs. Candour has a carriage, a symbol of some status in society, the impression is given that her social status differs from that of Lady Sneerwell, Mrs. Candour is attempting to buy her way in society with the coinage of malicious gossip.
Rowley had been steward to Charles and Joseph Surfaces late father al the time of the play he is steward to Sir Oliver Surface. He is a man of in terrify, resource full and as such mirrors the restoration tradition of the honest steward, he serves two principal functions. He is the confidant of Sir Peter Teazle and as such inlets to reconcile Lady Teazle to her husband, and he advises both Sir Peter and Sir Oliver Surface of the true merits of the Surface brothers. With the latter he sets in motion the two interludes in which Sir Oliver appears as Mr. premium at Sir Peters in stigation and Mr. Stanley at Rowley’s own suggestion.
بعد ان عرفت الشخصيات اطلع على المسرحيه واحداثها وافضل انه يكون بقرأتين مختلفتين :
هذه القرأه الاولى للاحداث :
Act I, Scene I:
Lady Sneerwell confides to her cousin, Miss Verjuice, (or Snake, in some versions), her plan to undermine Charles Surface's attempts to woo Maria, in order that Lady Sneerwell may have him for herself. Both Charles's older brother Joseph, who is also wooing Maria, and Maria herself make a brief appearance. News of the imminent return of the Surface brothers' rich uncle, Sir Oliver, from India is discussed, as well as Charles's currently dire financial situation.
Act I, Scene II:
Sir Peter complains of his spendthrift new young wife, Lady Teazle, to his servant Rowley who relates news that Peter's friend, Sir Oliver, is now in town.
Act II, Scene I:
Sir Peter argues with his wife, Lady Teazle, over her unbridled spending behavior in order to keep in Fashion despite her recent and far humbler country origins.
Act II, Scene II:
After a round of the cards and community scandal discussion, Joseph Surface gets a moment alone to pursue a mostly indifferent Maria before Lady Teazle interrupts, dismisses Maria, and proves herself a far more forward flirting partner and prospect.
Act II, Scene III:
Sir Oliver and Sir Peter discuss the Surface brothers. Sir Peter praises Joseph's high morals, but Sir Oliver suspects that he may be a hypocrite, and decides to give the libertine and spendthrift Charles a chance to prove his worth.
Act III, Scene I:
Sir Oliver describes his plan to visit each of the brothers incognito in order to test their characters. He will disguise himself as their needy relative Mr. Stanley. (Later, he changes his plan, visiting only Joseph as Mr Stanley, and posing as a broker, Premium, to Charles.)
Sir Peter and Lady Teazle argue again, and conclude that they should separate.
Act III, Scene II:
Sir Oliver (as Mr. Premium) arrives at Charles' house.
Act III, Scene III:
Charles, entertaining his raucous dinner guests, raises a toast to Maria. He then meets Sir Oliver, not recognising his long-lost uncle, and asks him for credit, with a promise that Sir Oliver (whom he believes is in Calcutta) will soon leave him a fortune. He admits that he has sold the family silver and his late father's precious library, and offers to sell the family portrait collection to Sir Oliver (as Mr. Premium). Sir Oliver is horrified by Charles' disrespect for his heirlooms, and decides to disinherit him.
Act IV, Scene I:
Charles auctions all but one of the family portraits to Sir Oliver, using the precious family tree rolled up as an auction-hammer. However, he refuses to sell the last portrait, which is of Sir Oliver, out of respect for his benefactor. Sir Oliver is moved, and inwardly forgives Charles. Sir Oliver later receives from Charles some of the proceeds of the auction addressed to their poor relation Mr. Stanley, which confirms his favourable opinion of Charles.
Act IV, Scene II:
Sir Oliver reflects on Charles' character.
Act IV, Scene III:
Joseph pretends to Lady Teazle that he has no interest in Maria, and that the Lady should have an affair with him. Sir Peter arrives; Lady Teazle hides. Sir Peter (misled by gossip spread by Joseph and Lady Sneerwell) tells Joseph that he suspects an affair between Charles and his wife. He also divulges his intention to give his wife a generous allowance and bequest. Charles arrives unexpectedly, and Sir Peter hides. Charles talks of Joseph's intimacy with Lady Teazle, unaware that Sir Peter is listening. Sir Peter now knows that Charles is not guilty of seducing his wife. Joseph, his secret exposed, has to call Sir Peter from his hiding place. While Joseph goes to answer a caller, Charles and Sir Peter discover Lady Teazle hiding. Lady Teazle admits that she came to pursue an affair with Joseph, but that having learned of her husband's generosity, she has repented, leaving Joseph friendless.
Act V, Scene I:
Sir Oliver (as Mr. Stanley) visits Joseph. Sir Oliver's companion warns him about Joseph: "He appears to have as much speculative Benevolence as any private Gentleman in the Kingdom--though he is seldom so sensual as to indulge himself in the exercise of it." Joseph, not recognising his long-lost uncle, speaks ungratefully of Sir Oliver, and refuses, despite many hypocritical gestures of goodwill, to give him money. After Sir Oliver has left, Joseph hears that his uncle has arrived in town.
Act V, Scene II:
Mrs. Candour, Sir Benjamin and Mr. Crabtree, members of The School for Scandal, gossip with Lady Sneerwell about Lady Teazle's misfortune. They exchange confused rumours about a duel between Sir Peter and Joseph, but Sir Peter arrives to prove them wrong. Sir Oliver laughs at Sir Peter's misfortune. Sir Peter plans to repair his relationship with his wife, after letting her suffer for a while.
Act V, Scene III:
Lady Sneerwell complains to Joseph that Sir Peter, now that he knows the truth about Joseph, will allow Charles to marry Maria. They plot to use an accomplice named Snake as a witness to the relationship between Charles and Sneerwell.
Sir Oliver again visits Joseph as Mr. Stanley. Charles arrives. As Charles and Joseph try to eject Sir Oliver, Sir Peter and Lady Teazle arrive with Maria, ending Sir Oliver's pretence. Sir Peter, his wife and Sir Oliver together condemn Joseph and forgive Charles. Maria, however, declines to accept Charles, citing his friendship with Lady Sneerwell. Sneerwell and Snake arrive. Snake, however, has been bribed to turn against Sneerwell, so her lie is exposed. Joseph and Sneerwell are left to pursue their cynical partnership. Charles and Maria are reconciled.
Lady Teazle resolves to leave The School for Scandal
هذه القرأه الثانيه للاحداث
The school for scandal /
by Richard Sheridan.
< The plot :>
In Lady Sneerwell’s conversation with snake , snake introduces the audience to the brothers Joseph and Charles Surface , Joseph’s appearance seems to be good . Charles loves Maria , the young ward of Sir Peter Teazle , Joseph, however seeks her fortune and is anxious to break the match between her and his brother. Lady Sneerwell, in love with Charles and aids Joseph in his match – breaking plans .their discussing of Charles Surface’s growing debts is interrupted by the arrival of Maria . Mrs. candour who cloaks her gossiping under the disguise of good nature . She talks about Maria and Charles, also between Sir Peter Teazle and his young wife . Sir Benjamin backbite arrives in company with his uncle Mr.crabtree the news says that Sir Oliver Surface is to return home from the east Indies, Sir Peter Teazle says that he altered his state from an elderly bachelor to a married man by wedding six months a go to a young wife from the country, to his chagrin she has become a fashionable Lady of the town. Sir Peter Teazle thinks in common with most other people of Charles that he , to be a neverr – do – well . he compares him unfavorably with Joseph, Rowley, the Surface bothers, late father’s steward attempts to modify Sir Peter’s dislike of Charles ,Sir Oliver Surface has returned to town he is to test out the moral worth of his two nephews. Sir Peter Teazle instances his wife’s extravagancies, her flowers, her coach and her footmen, he reminds her of her own rural origins. Joseph gets in conversation with Maria, their subject has been broached before Maria’s neglect of Joseph Surface’s attentions in favour of those of Charles. Joseph starts a love affair with Lady Teazle to support his courtship of Maria in a conversation between Sir Peter Teazle and Sir Oliver Surface in presence of Rowley, Peter Teazle expresses his admiration for Joseph’s aphorisms. Sir Oliver Surface hatches a plan to meet each of his nephews under two separate disguises. He will impersonate Mr. premium, a money lender, in visiting Charles. And old Mr. stanely when he sees Joseph. Sir Peter ruminates on the reported affair between his wife and Charles Surface. Sir Oliver Surface arrives Charles Surface’s house in the guise of Mr. premium to visit his nephew, Charles Surface displays the collection of portraits to Sir Oliver who is still masquerading as Mr. premium. Sir Oliver fastens on a picture of himself hanging above the settee and asks to purchase it. Charles resolutely refuses to part with the portrait for, he says, his uncle has been good to him .and Sir Oliver concedes that here is his nephew in spirit as well as by blood. Sir Oliver goes to visit Joseph Surface. Lady Teazle goes to Joseph Surface, they were interrupted by the news that Sir Peter Teazle has arrived. Joseph hides Lady Teazle behind the screen. Sir Peter Teazle enters and tells Joseph about his fears that his wife is in love with Charles Surface. Sir Peter proposes to discuss Joseph’s courtship of Maria, but Joseph terrified that Lady Teazle will hear of this from behind the screen, the news comes with Charles’ arrival Sir Peter Teazle wishes to conceal himself so that he may hear Joseph confront Charles about his love for Lady Teazle, lighting on the screen as a hiding place, he notices a petticoat protruding format, Joseph pretends that he has hidden there a little French milliner. Charles enters from the street slightly puzzles that Sir Peter has left so soon. Sir Peter is horrified to see that his wife to see that his wife is the milliner. Charles ‘ parting remark condemns his brother’s lack of probity. Joseph and Lady Teazle tried to give explanation Sir Peter and his wife leaves the library in Joseph’s house. Sir Oliver in his second disguise and Rowley visit Joseph, Sir Oliver discovers Joseph’s reality. Mrs. Candour goes to Sir Peter Teazle’s house to learn at first hand about the incident with the screen. Lady Sneerwell is furious that she has joined in league. She claims that Joseph attempted to seduce Lady Teazle. Joseph tells Lady Sneerwell, has undertaken to prove that Charles Surface has vowed that Lady Sneerwell shall be his wife. When Snake comes to support Lady Sneerwell in her claim, the correspondence, the so- called evidence, is forged. Sir Oliver proposes that the marriage of Charles and Maria should take place the next day and Sir Peter’s toast to the couple adds warmth to the ending of the play may you live as happily as Lady Teazle and I intend to do.
طبعاً من قرأتك للاحداث والشخصيات وفهمك لها بيكون سهل تجيب عن ادوار الشخصيات(الحاجات الي سووها في المسرحيه) مثلاً Lady Sneerweel ايش عملت في المسرحيه هذا كتم من اسئلة الترم الماضي .
اخيراً اذكر الثيم ( المسرحيه تتكلم عن ماذا) مدرسة الفضائح Themes
فيه مجموعه كبيره جمعتها لك
- What is the theme of the school for scandal?
_A- True love revives despite anti forces.
B- The appearance could be very deceptive.
C- vil scheming and mean planning never bring good result.
D- Wisdom and honest are values that from the true nature.
money, sex, relationships, generations, humor, scandal reality and appearance, including hypocrisy, manners/artificiality, masks, disguises and hiding places and sentiment, gossip, health and sickness, Judging, testing and assessing, money, name and reputation, power, Satire, society, the title of the play , town and country, youth and age
الموضوع او الفكرة الرئيسية للمسرحية
Initially honor seems to be in short supply in School for Scandal: The gossips are completely without honor; Lady Teazle is considering abandoning the lessons about honor that she learned growing up in the country; Joseph is ready to betray his brother to secure a wealthy wife; and Charles is hopelessly in debt to moneylenders. Even Sir Oliver, whose honor should be above question, is ready to assume a disguise to test his nephews’ honor.
By the conclusion of the play, however, it is clear that only the gossips have no true honor. Lady Teazle realizes that she values her husband and that she has more honor than her friends had supposed. Charles, though foolish and intemperate with gambling and money, is honorable. He pays his debts, if slowly, and he is willing to help a poor relation without being asked. Sir Oliver’s deception unmasks Joseph’s hypocrisy. And the moneylender, Moses, is a man of so much honor that he assists Charles in managing his debts.
Sheridan asks his audience to question the morality of society in this play. Slandering one’s neighbors, acquaintances, and friends is an entertainment. There is no real interest in the truth — and even less consideration is given to the damage that such gossip causes.
In the early acts of School for Scandal, the subjects of such gossip are not known to the audience, who cannot determine the truth of Lady Sneerwell and Mrs. Candour’s observations. But by the last act, it becomes clear that these gossips need absolutely no element of truth to fuel their stories. The felling of the screen in Joseph’s library — and the confrontation that took place immediately after — are fresh in the audience’s mind. This earlier scene serves as a nice contrast to the speculation and innuendo that engages the gossips. Although it is all comedy, it is comedy that teaches a lesson to the audience.
School for Scandal is generally regarded as a refutation of the sentimental drama that was prevalent on the London stage prior to and during Sheridan’s era. Sentiment was much admired as a replacement for the debauchery of Restoration comedy, but it often proved bland and boring. Often the protagonists were pure to the point of generic blandness. In Sheridan’s play, Joseph Surface is much admired for his sentiment. Conversely, his brother Charles is chastised because he is not the man of sentiment that his brother is: “He is a man of sentiment . . . there is nothing in the world so noble as a man of sentiment.” That Joseph is really not at all noble or admirable makes Sir Peter’s compliment more damning and more a mockery of this eighteenth-century convention.
4- Truth and Falsehood
Trying to determine the truth occupies much of Sheridan’s play. Lady Sneerwell and Snake are engaged in deception and falsehood, and Joseph is willing to bend the truth to get what he wants. When Sir Oliver, disguised as old Stanley, approaches Joseph to ask for money, Joseph easily lies that he has no money. He even blames his brother, Charles, stating that Charles’s free-spending has left Joseph without funds. Of course the gossips have no interest in the truth; their goal is to entertain one another with wild speculation. When compared to such exciting exaggerations as theirs, reality — and the truth — is boring.
This is certainly a play about wealth. The poor in London were much too busy trying to find ter and food to engage in such idle distractions as gossip or gaming. Wealth really sets the characters in this play apart from the rest of society. For instance, Sir Peter complains that his wife spends too much on silk dresses and fresh out-of-season flowers. Charles spends his money gaming and drinking with his friends, and the moneylenders are on their way to being wealthy, thanks to idle young men such as Charles. Maria is the object of Joseph’s plotting only because she is wealthy, and Sir Oliver is primarily interested in the morals of his nephews because he plans to leave them him wealth.